Their attacks of September 11 2001 sparked a War on Terror which has a legacy that very much lasts to this day, but where did Al-Qaeda come from, how did their ideologies form and what role do they play in the world today?

In this episode James is joined by Dr Afzal Ashraf, an expert on the terror group's ideologies and violent religious extremism. Dr Ashraf spent over 30 years in the UK Armed Forces as a senior officer and is a Senior Government Advisor.

A version of this episode was originally released in September 2021.

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